In a life threatening emergency dial Triple Zero (000)

In a life threatening emergency dial Triple Zero (000)
ACT Public Hospitals

Canberra Hospital

5124 0000


Calvary Hospital

6201 6111

Mental Health

Call Mental Health Triage on

1800 629 354

(free call except from mobiles or public phones) or

6205 1065

Poisons Hotline

For a poison emergency in Australia call

131126

Drug and Alcohol Help Line

The Drug and Alcohol Help Line is available 24-hours, 7 days a week on

5124 9977

Health Protection Service

For after hours urgent public health matters including environmental health, radiation safety, food poisoning and communicable disease management phone:

(02) 6205 1700

healthdirect

24 hour health advice

1800 022 222

ACT State Emergency Service

Emergency help
during flood or storms

132 500

Policies and Framworks Influencing Children and Young People


Territory and national policies and frameworks influencing children and young people

When reviewing individual, family and community outcomes, it is important to acknowledge the broader policy and social influences. Several Australian Government and Australian Capital Territory policies influence child health, wellbeing, learning and development within the ACT.

ACT policies and frameworks

The Human Services Blueprint was released in 2014 and provides a framework for the delivery of better and sustainable outcomes for our children and young people by ensuring improved access and service integration for human service users.

The ACT Children and Young People’s Commitment 2015–2025 was released in December 2015 and is a high-level strategic document that sets a vision for a whole-of-government and whole-of-community approach to promote the rights of children and young people (aged 0 to 25 years) in the ACT. It is envisaged that the Commitment will provide guidance to people in the Canberra community on how to assist children and young people to reach their potential, make a contribution, and share the benefits of our community.

A Step Up for Our Kids — One Step Can Make a Lifetime of Difference (Out of Home Care Strategy 2015–2020) was released in January 2015. The Strategy is a cornerstone initiative of the ACT Government’s Better Services suite from the Human Services Blueprint. The Strategy will strengthen existing child protection and out of home care services through the introduction of new services and reforms, ensuring children and young people who need protection and care receive the right service, at the right time for the right duration.

Community Services Directorate Strategic Plan outlines the Directorate’s direction over the financial year, including principles, priorities, strategic initiatives and measures of success.

Early Years Learning Framework: Belonging, Being and Becoming External link describes the principles practices and outcomes that support and enhance young children's learning from birth to five years of age, as well as their transition to school.

ACT schools are progressively implementing the Australian Curriculum for students in Kindergarten to Year 10 External link. The Australian Curriculum describes what all Australian students should be taught, and the expected quality of their learning. The Australian Curriculum is founded on the principles of quality and equity, and seeks to develop successful learners, confident and creative individuals and active and informed citizens.

Education Capital: Leading the Nation — Education and Training Directorate Strategic Plan 2014–17External link

Skilled Workforce for the ACT: ACT Skills and Training Policy Directions PaperExternal link Reforms are underway to ensure a strong ACT training sector provides quality opportunities for people to access flexible training to enhance their career prospects. In a time of limited resources, it is also important for the ACT to continue to find efficiencies in how training can best be supported, to ensure its ongoing sustainability.

ACT Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Agreement 2019-2028 sets out the commitment of the ACT Government, our service partners, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Elected Body, and most importantly the community, to work together to recognise and respond to the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in the ACT and surrounding region. Together we can bridge the gap and ensure all Canberrans receive the opportunities to achieve equitable outcomes in all aspects of their life.

ACT Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Justice Partnership 2015–2018External link provides a higher level of understanding and mutual commitment to addressing the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in the ACT law and criminal justice system, improving their community safety, and overcoming social inclusion. It is a joint partnership between the ACT Government and the ACT Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Elected Body. The partnership is a first for the ACT, involving considerable consultation with the local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community.

The Blueprint for Youth Justice in the ACT 2012–22 is a ten-year strategy of reform that focuses on early intervention, prevention and diversion of young people from the youth justice system.

ACT Prevention of Violence Against Women Strategy 2011–17 targets violence against women and children by promoting holistic and flexible service provision, an anti-violence culture, and accountable perpetrators who are supported to change their behaviour.

The  ACT Women’s Plan 2016–26 sets out key directions and priorities in relation to the ACT Government’s work in the area of improving outcomes for women and girls living in the ACT. Work under the Plan will address priority areas of women’s health and wellbeing; women’s access to stable and affordable housing; women’s right to safety at home and in the community; and women’s economic security and leadership. The Plan also sets out a course of action to introduce targeted measures to improve outcomes for women who are at heightened risk due to intersecting forms of discrimination as a result of factors such as disability, race, age and socio-economic status.

The Involve Canberra Disability Commitment External link is a movement of people with and without disability, community organisations, industry and government acting together to achieve change that empowers people with disability. We will achieve change through community designed social campaigns that focus on practical action in each priority area.

The  National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) External link is a new way of funding individualised support for people with disability (including psychosocial disability) that involves more choice and control and a lifetime approach to a person's support needs. The NDIS trial began on 1 July 2014 for people with disability living in the ACT. People have been transitioning over this past two years. Around 5,075 people with disability in the ACT are covered by the scheme as of September 2016.
Call the NDIA on 1800 800 110 or TTY users phone 1800 555 677 and ask for 1800 800 110

Renewing Libraries: Libraries, Literacy and Learning Strategy 2015–2019 External link aims to deliver and support literacy programs, help create lifelong learners, facilitate information-sharing with the community, and provide access to technology, the internet and inclusive spaces. It also invests in the vision of Canberra as a digital city — digitally literate, connected and engaged.

Towards Zero Growth Healthy Weight Action Plan External link is a whole-of-government initiative to address the rising rates of overweight and obesity across the ACT population. This initiative is guided by the Towards Zero Growth Healthy Weight Action Plan which was launched by the ACT Government in 2013. The Action Plan sets a target of 'zero growth' in the rates of overweight and obesity within the ACT across six key themes: schools, workplaces, urban planning, food environment, social inclusion, and information and data.

Active2020: A strategic plan for sport and active recreation in the ACT and Region 2011–2020 External link promotes ACT Government and industry partnerships dedicated to encouraging long term investment and planning by sport and recreation associations in the ACT. It aims to improve the health, wellbeing and connectedness of community members, including children and young people.

Nature Play CBR External link is about getting more children outdoors more often so they can reap the benefits of unstructured playing, learning and being physically active. Children need nature play for their physical and mental health, for their cognitive and emotional development, and because they have a right to run, climb, build, get dirty, and imagine the world for themselves through play.

The Canberra Plan: Towards our second century External link shapes the ACT Government’s vision for the growth and development of Canberra into the future and aims to make Canberra a great place to live for children, young people and other members of the community.

Canberra Social Plan 2011 External link vision is that: Canberra is a place where all people reach their potential, make a contribution and share the benefits of an inclusive community. The Plan 2011 re-affirms the ACT Government’s commitment to the people of Canberra. It is based on the themes of connection, belonging and collaboration.

The Social Compact 2012 External link highlights the relationship between the government and community sector and the vital role played by the community sector in contributing to quality community life.

National policies and frameworks

The current initiatives within the ACT fit within a broader national policy context focused on monitoring and promoting positive outcomes for children and young people. Current initiatives influencing the development of children and young people nationwide include:

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Looking for more data?

ACT Health Epidemiology Branch External link provides a range of reports on the health of the ACT population, to assist with the development and evaluation of policies and interventions to improve health. Reports outlining the health status of children and young people in the ACT include: the biennial Chief Health Officer’s Report, the Health Status of Young People in the ACT 2012 report, and maternal and perinatal health publications.

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) External link Children and Youth theme page provides a guide to both ABS and non-ABS data, identifying the wide range of information available on children and youth.

The  Australian Early Development Census (AEDC) External link is a national population measure of children’s development at school entry in five domains of physical health and wellbeing; emotional maturity; social competence; language and cognitive skills; and communication and general knowledge. The AEDC website also provides contextual community data from the Australian Census (2006 and 2011) relevant to the development of children.

The  Australian Institute of Health and Welfare  (AIHW) External link is a major national agency which provides reliable, regular and relevant information and statistics on Australia’s health and welfare. The National headline indicators for children’s health, development and wellbeing, for example, includes a set of 19 children’s headline indicators designed to focus policy attention on priorities for children’s health, development and wellbeing. Young Australians: their health and wellbeing is a series of reports that provides the latest available information on how Australia’s young people aged 12–24 years are faring according to a set of national indicators of health and wellbeing.

The  Australian Research Alliance for Children and Youth  (ARACY) External link is a national non-profit organisation working to improve the wellbeing of children and young people, by advancing collaboration and evidence-based action.

Longitudinal Study of Australian Children  (LSAC) External link investigates the health, education, child and family functioning, child care and socio-demographics of Australian children. Data collection began in 2004 on two cohorts of children, infants and 4–5 year olds. The study will continue to follow these two cohorts of children to the ages of 14–15 years and 18–19 years.

Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth  (LSAY) External link is a research program that tracks young people as they move from school to post-school destinations, such as further study, work and other destinations, and explores social outcomes, such as wellbeing. Information collected as part of LSAY covers a wide range of school and post-school topics, including: student achievement, student aspirations, school retention, social background, attitudes to school, work experiences and what students are doing when they leave school. This includes vocational and higher education, employment, job seeking activity, and satisfaction with various aspects of their lives.

Every year, the Australian Government’s Productivity Commission releases the Report on Government Services (ROGS) External link to provide information on the effectiveness and efficiency of government services across Australia. Chapters relating to children and young people are included in Part B (early childhood, education and training) and Part F (community services).

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Figures

Figure 1 Proportion (%) of estimated ACT resident population, by age group, June 20155 18
Figure 2 Proportion (%) of the estimated resident population who were aged 0–24 years in each Australian state and territory, June 2015
Figure 3 Ancestry of dependent children aged 0–24 years, ACT 2011
Figure 4 Percentage change of 0–24 year olds in each ACT district, 2009–14
Figure 5 Proportion (%) of women who smoked during pregnancy, ACT and Australia, 2004–13
Figure 6 Proportion (%) of women who smoked during pregnancy by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status, ACT residents, 2002–04 to 2011–13
Figure 7 Proportion (%) of low birthweight babies, live births, ACT and Australia, 2007–13
Figure 8 Proportion (%) of low birthweight babies by maternal Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status, live births, ACT residents, 2002–04 to 2011–13
Figure 9 Infant mortality rate, ACT and Australia, 2004–14
Figure 10 Exclusive breastfeeding, infants presenting at ACT Maternal and Child Health immunisation clinics, by age (completed calendar months), 2011–12 to 2014–15
Figure 11 Any breastfeeding, infants presenting at ACT Maternal and Child Health immunisation clinics, by age (completed calendar month), 2011–12 to 2014–15
Figure 12 Percentage of ACT children aged 2–15 years who eat two serves of fruit and five serves of vegetables every day, 2007–08 to 2013–14
Figure 13 Number of ACT children who walk or cycle to school, 2007–14
Figure 14 Proportion (%) of ACT children aged 60–63 months fully immunised, 2010–15
Figure 15 Proportion (%) of children aged 60–63 months assessed as fully immunised by state or territory, 2015
Figure 16 Proportion (%) of ACT Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 60–63 months fully immunised, 2010–15
Figure 17 Proportion (%) of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 60–63 months assessed as fully immunised by state or territory, 2015
Figure 18 ACT Public Hospitals — Hospitalisation rate per 1,000 population for mental health and behavioural disorders (persons aged 14 years or less), 2009–10 to 2014–15
Figure 19 Self reported high or very high psychological distress, percentage of ACT residents aged 16–25 years, 2007–08 to 2013–14
Figure 20 Road transport casualties, rate per 100,000, of ACT and Australian residents aged 0–25 years, 2007–08 to 2011–12
Figure 21 The percentage of children developmentally vulnerable on one or more and two or more domains of the AEDC, ACT and Australia, 2009, 2012 and 2015
Figure 22The percentage of children developmentally vulnerable on one or more domain(s) of the AEDC, ACT regions, 2015
Figure 23 Apparent retention rates (%) of all ACT students and ACT Aboriginal and TorresStrait Islander students, 2009–15
Figure 24 Apparent retention rates (%) of ACT and Australia Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students, 2009–15
Figure 25 Apparent retention rates (%) of ACT and Australia students by gender, 2009–15
Figure 26 ACT unemployment rate (%) for people aged 15–24 years (12-month average) and 15–64 years (trend), May 2011 to April 2016
Figure 27 Proportion (%) of overweight and obese ACT and Australian children aged 5–17 years, 2007–08, 2011–12 and 2014–15
Figure 28 Tobacco use, ACT secondary students (%), 1996–2014
Figure 29 Alcohol consumption, ACT secondary students (%), 1996–2014
Figure 30 Young people aged 10–17 in the ACT under supervision by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status, 2008–09 to 2014–15 (rate per 10,000 of population)
Figure 31 Young people under supervision in the ACT, by sex and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status, 2014–15
Figure 32 Young people under supervision in the ACT, by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status and age at first supervision, 2014–15
Figure 33 Young people under supervision in the ACT, by age, 2014–15
Figure 34 Young people under community-based supervision in the ACT, by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status, 2008–09 to 2014–15
Figure 35 Young people under community-based supervision in the ACT, by sex and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status, 2009–10 to 2014–15
Figure 36 Young people under community-based supervision in the ACT, by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status and age at first supervision, 2014–15
Figure 37 Young people under community-based supervision in the ACT by age, 2014–15
Figure 38 Young people in detention by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status in the ACT, 2008–09 to 2014–15
Figure 39 Young people in detention by sex and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status in the ACT, 2009–10 to 2014–15
Figure 40 Young people in detention in the ACT by age, 2014–15
Figure 41 Most common lead offence for admissions of ACT young people to detention, July 2013 to March 2016
Figure 42 Sunburn last summer, % of ACT students by sex, 1999–2014
Figure 43 Sunburn last summer, % of ACT students by age group, 1999–2014
Figure 44 Median equivalised disposable household income in the ACT and Australia, 2002–03 to 2013–14
Figure 45 The number and per cent of children and young people in the ACT who live in low income households in rental stress, 2001, 2006 and 2011
Figure 46 ACT child protection notification, investigations and substantiations, 2004–05 to 2014–15
Figure 47 Total number of ACT children and young people on care and protection orders, June 2008–09 to June 2014–15
Figure 48 Teenage fertility rate, ACT and Australia, 2004–14
Figure 49 The number of ACT children, young people or adults with a disability or significant developmental delay accessing services, 2009–10 to 2015–16*
Figure 50 The number of children, young people or adults with a disability or significant developmental delay accessing Therapy ACT services by age range, 2015–16
Figure 51 The number of families with a child or young person with a disability or significant developmental delay accessing Therapy ACT services by disability status, 2015–16
Figure 52 The number of families with a child or young person with a disability or significant developmental delay accessing Therapy ACT services of client age by ACT region, 2015–16
Figure 53 Number of ACT families accessing services from the Child and Family Centres (services provided by staff of Child and Family Centres), 2006–07 to 2014–15
Figure 54 The percentage of children and young people 0–14 years in ACT and Australia, who attended at least one selected cultural activity and cultural venue or event, 2012

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Tables

Table 1 Total number and proportion (%) of estimated district population, by age group in the ACT, June 2014
Table 2 Estimated resident population, ACT, by age and sex, 0–24 years, 2009 and 2014
Table 3 Minimum recommended number of serves of fruit per day
Table 4 Minimum recommended number of serves of vegetables per day
Table 5 Sport and outdoor activities played in past 12 months; children aged 5–15 years, ACT, 011–14
Table 6 National Immunisation Program Schedule (from 20 April 2015)
Table 7 ACT Public Hospitals, top 25 diagnoses for hospital admission by volume, persons aged 14 years or less, 2014–15
Table 8 Age-specific type 1 diabetes incidence rate (per 100,000 population), ACT residents aged 0–25 years, 2005–14
Table 9 Age-specific type 1 diabetes prevalence rate (per 100,000 population), ACT residents aged 0–25 years, 2014
Table 10 Medicare-funded GP mental health treatment plans for ACT children and young people aged 0–24 years, 2014–15
Table 11 Number of notifications of Gonorrhoea, Infectious Syphilis (less than two years duration and more than two years duration), Chlamydia and HIV in people aged less than 25 years in the ACT, 2010–15
Table 12 Characteristics of children participating in the AEDC, ACT and Australia, 2015
Table 13 The percentage of children developmentally on track, at risk and vulnerable on each domain of the AEDC, ACT and Australia, 2009, 2012 and 2015
Table 14 The percentage of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children developmentally vulnerable on one or more domain(s) of the AEDC, ACT and Australia, 2009, 2012 and 2015
Table 15 The percentage of children with a language background other than English and children with an English speaking background developmentally vulnerable on one or more domain(s) of the AEDC, ACT and Australia, 2009, 2012 and 2015
Table 16 The percentage of male and female children developmentally vulnerable on one or more domain(s) of the AEDC, ACT and Australia, 2009, 2012 and 2015
Table 17 Children, aged four or five years, enrolled in a preschool program in the ACT, 2012–15
Table 18 Total number of ACT kindergarten aged children scoring ‘normal’, ‘borderline’ or ‘of concern’ for social and emotional wellbeing, 2014 and 2015
Table 19 Attendance rate (%) at ACT public primary and high schools, by grade year, 2010–15
Table 20 The proportion (%) of year 3, 5, 7 and 9 students at or above the national minimum standard in reading, writing and numeracy in the ACT and Australia in the 2011–15 NAPLAN testing
Table 21 NAPLAN 2015 students at or above national minimum standard (%) by sex, ACT and Australia
Table 22 The proportion (%) of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander year 3, 5, 7 and 9 students at or above the national minimum standard in reading, writing and numeracy in the ACT and Australia, 2011–15
Table 23 The proportion (%) of non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander year 3, 5, 7 and 9 students at or above the national minimum standard in reading, writing and numeracy in the ACT and Australia, 2011–15
Table 24 Percentage of ACT Year 12 graduates employed or studying six months after completing an ACT Year 12 Certificate, 2010–14
Table 25 Proportion (%) of ACT secondary students reporting ever having used illicit drugs, 2011 and 2014
Table 26 Young people offending in the ACT (per 100,000 of population), 2008–09 to 2014–15
Table 27 Number of ACT children and young people aged 0–24 years who were homeless on Census night by operational groups and sex, 2011
Table 28 Number of ACT children and young people aged 0–24 years who were homeless on Census night by age group, 2006 and 2011
Table 29 ACT children and young people subject of substantiated reports by age group, 2012–13 to 2014–15
Table 30 ACT children and young people subject of substantiated reports by sex, 2012–13 to 2014–15
Table 31 ACT children and young people subject of substantiated reports by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status, 2012–13 to 2014–15
Table 32 ACT children and young people on care and protection orders by age group at 30 June 2013, 2014 and 2015
Table 33 ACT children and young people on care and protection orders by sex at 30 June 2013, 2014 and 2015
Table 34 ACT children and young people on care and protection orders by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status at 30 June 2013, 2014 and 2015
Table 35 Proportion (%) of ACT children and young people residing in out of home care placements by type as at June 2010 – June 2015
Table 36 ACT children and young people in out of home care by age group at 30 June 2013, 2014 and 2015
Table 37 ACT children and young people in out of home care by sex at 30 June 2013, 2014 and 2015
Table 38 ACT children and young people in out of home care by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status at 30 June 2013, 2014 and 2015
Table 39 Number of ACT 0–24 year old victims of family violence related offences, 2014–15
Table 40 Proportion (%) of students in year 3 achieving at or above national minimum standards
in reading by parental education within ACT and Australia, 2011–15
Table 41 Proportion (%) of students in year 3 achieving at or above national minimum standards in writing by parental education within ACT and Australia, 2011–15
Table 42 Proportion (%) of students in year 3 achieving at or above national minimum standards in numeracy by parental education within ACT and Australia, 2011–15
Table 43 ACT NDIS Participant Numbers aged 0–24 years, 30 March 2016
Table 44 Number of ACT enrolments of students (K-12) with disability by sector, 2012–16
Table 45 Number and proportion (%) of ACT students aged 18–24 years with a disability (including impairment or long-term condition) enrolled in the Vocational Education and
Training (VET) system, 2011 to September 2015
Table 46 Number of registered Libraries ACT members by age, 2014, 2015 and 2016 as of May 2016 114
Table 47 ACT participant numbers for Giggle and Wiggle and Story Time, 2012–13 to 2015–16
Table 48 ACT children’s participation rate (%) in selected organised cultural activities, selected characteristics, 2012
Table 49 ACT children’s participation rate (%) attendance at selected cultural venues and events, selected characteristics, 2012
Table 50 Proportion (%) of the ACT and Australian population that attended at least one cultural venue or event, 2009–10 and 2013–14
Table 51 Proportion (%) of ACT and Australian young people aged 18–24 years who volunteered, 2006–14

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References

  1. Council of Australian Governments (COAG) 2009, Investing the Early Years – A National Early Childhood Development Strategy, Canberra.
  2. COAG 2009, National Integrated Strategy for Closing the Gap in Indigenous Disadvantage, <www.coag.gov.au/node/65 External link>.
  3. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2015, Australian Demographic Statistics, ‘Table 7. Estimated resident population, by age and sex—at 30 June 2014’, time series spreadsheet, cat. no. 31010DO002_201506, viewed 9 June 2016, <www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/3101.0Sep%202015?OpenDocument External link>.
  4. ABS 2014, Estimates and Projections, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: Series B, ‘Table 8. Estimated and projected Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population, Services B(a), Single year of age, Australian Capital Territory’, time series spreadsheet, cat. no. 32380DO007_2011, viewed 9 June 2016, <www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/3238.02001%20to%202026?OpenDocument External link>.
  5. ABS 2015, Australian Demographic Statistics, ‘Table 7. Estimated resident population, by age and sex—at 30 June 2014’, time series spreadsheet, cat. no. 31010DO002_201506, viewed 9 June 2016, <www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/3101.0Sep%202015?OpenDocumentExternal link>.
  6. ABS 2015, Population by Age and Sex, Regions of Australia, ‘Population estimates by age and sex, regions of Australian Capital Territory (ASGS 2011)’, data cube: Excel spreadsheet, cat. no. 32350DS0008_ACT_2009_2014, viewed 9 June 2016, <www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/3235.02014?OpenDocumentExternal link>.
  7. ABS 2015, Population by Age and Sex, Regions of Australia, ‘Population estimates by age and sex, regions of Australian Capital Territory (ASGS 2011)’, data cube: Excel spreadsheet, cat. no. 32350DS0008_ACT_2009_2014, viewed 9 June 2016, <www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/3235.02014?OpenDocumentExternal link>.
  8. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2015, Australia’s mothers and babies 2013—in brief, Perinatal statistics series no. 31. cat no. PER 72, (Canberra: AIHW).
  9. AIHW 2015. Australia’s mothers and babies 2013—in brief, Perinatal statistics series no. 31. cat. no. PER 72, (Canberra: AIHW).
  10. Hilder L, Zhichao Z, Parker M, Jahan S and Chambers GM 2014, Australia’s mothers and babies 2012, Perinatal statistics series no. 30. cat. no. PER 69, (Canberra: AIHW).
  11. Goldenberg RL and Culhane JF 2007, ‘Low birth weight in the United States’, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 85: 584S-90S.
  12. ABS 2010, Measures of Australia's Progress, 2010, cat. no. 1370.0, (Canberra: ABS).
  13. AIHW 2011, National breastfeeding indicators: workshop report, cat. no. PHE 146, (Canberra: AIHW).
  14. National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) 2012, Infant Feeding Guidelines Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council, <www.eatforhealth.gov.au/sites/default/files/files/the_guidelines/n56_infant_feeding_guidelines.pdfExternal link>.
  15. NHMRC 2012, Infant Feeding Guidelines Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council, <www.eatforhealth.gov.au/sites/default/files/files/the_guidelines/n56_infant_feeding_guidelines.pdfExternal link>.
  16. NHMRC 2013, The Australian Dietary Guidelines, Commonwealth of Australia.
  17. NHMRC 2013, The Australian Dietary Guidelines, Commonwealth of Australia.
  18. Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing, Australia’s physical activity recommendations for 5–12 year olds and Australia’s physical activity recommendations for 12–18 year olds, <www.healthyactive.gov.auExternal link>.
  19. Australian Government Department of Health, Understanding Childhood Immunisation, Immunise Australia.
  20. <www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/type-1-diabetes>; <www.jdrf.org.au/what-is-type-1-diabetesExternal link >
  21. <www.diabetesmap.com.au/#/External link>.
  22. <www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129544708External link>.
  23. Egro FM 2013, ‘Why is type 1 diabetes increasing?’ Journal of molecular endocrinology, 51:R1-13
  24. <www.scientificamerican.com/article/a-diabetes-cliffhanger/External link>
  25. <www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129546992External link>
  26. AIHW 2014, National (insulin-treated) Diabetes Register and AIHW analysis of the National Diabetes Services Scheme, <http://aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129550898External link>.
  27. AIHW 2014, National (insulin-treated) Diabetes Register and AIHW analysis of the National Diabetes Services Scheme, <http://aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129550898External link>.
  28. University of Adelaide 2009, The Relationship between Psychological Distress and Psychological Wellbeing – Kessler 10 and Various Wellbeing Scales, accessed online 13.08.2015 via <https://health.adelaide.edu.au/pros/docs/reports/report_adepd_rship_pdwellbeing.pdfExternal link>, p.8.
  29. ACT Health 2011, The Health Status of Young People in the ACT, p.22 (ACT Health, Canberra).
  30. ACT Government, ACT Children and Young People’s Commitment 2015–2025, priorities 2 and 4.
  31. AIHW 2011, Young Australians: Their Health and Wellbeing, cat. no. PHE 140, p.31 (Canberra: AIHW).
  32. Ibid, p. 31.
  33. Department of Health 2014, Third National Sexually Transmissible Infections Strategy, p.3 (Department of Health, Canberra).
  34. The Kirby Institute 2014, HIV, viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible infections in Australia: Annual Surveillance Report 2014, p.8 and p.16, (University of New South Wales, Sydney).
  35. ACT Health 2011, The Health Status of Young People in the ACT, p.27 (ACT Health, Canberra).
  36. Australian Clearinghouse for Youth Studies 2014, ‘Young Australians and Sexual Health’, Vol. 1, No. 5, p.3. and <http://newsroom.unsw.edu.au/news/social-affairs/lets-talk-about-sex-openly-and-respectExternal link>.
  37. AIHW 2012, A Picture of Australia’s Children 2012, cat. no. PHE 167 (Canberra: AIHW).
  38. AIHW 2011, Headline Indicators for Children’s Health, Development and Wellbeing, p.50 (Canberra: AIHW).
  39. ANGLICARE NSW South, NSW West and ACT, Limiting Futures: Youth Unemployment in the ACT, p.4 accessed on 07.08.2015 via <www.anglicare.com.au/data/Limiting_Futures_Report.pdfExternal link>.
  40. Brotherhood of St Laurence, On the Treadmill: Young and long-term unemployed in Australia, p.2.
  41. World Health Organization 2005, Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health, available at
    <www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/strategy/eb11344/strategy_english_web.pdfExternal link>.
  42. NHMRC 2003, Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Overweight and Obesity in Children and Adolescents. Commonwealth of Australia.
  43. AM Magarey, LA Daniels and TJC Boulton 2001, ‘Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Australian children and adolescents: reassessment of 1985 and 1995 data against new standard international definitions’, Medical Journal of Australia, 194: 561–64.
  44. Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy 2011, The National Drug Strategy 2010–2015: A framework for action on alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs, pub. no. D0224, available at <www.nationaldrugstrategy.gov.au/internet/drugstrategy/publishing.nsf/Content/DB4076D49F13309FCA257854007BAF30/$File/nds2015.pdfExternal link >.
  45. Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy 2011, The National Drug Strategy 2010–2015: A framework for action on alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs, pub. no. D0224, available at <www.nationaldrugstrategy.gov.au/internet/drugstrategy/publishing.nsf/Content/DB4076D49F13309FCA257854007BAF30/$File/nds2015.pdfExternal link >.
  46. Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy 2011, The National Drug Strategy 2010–2015: A framework for action on alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs, pub. no. D0224, available at <www.nationaldrugstrategy.gov.au/internet/drugstrategy/publishing.nsf/Content/DB4076D49F13309FCA257854007BAF30/$File/nds2015.pdfExternal link >.
  47. ACT Health Epidemiology Section 2014, Unpublished data from the ACT Secondary Students’ Alcohol and Drug Survey 2014; published data from the ACT Secondary Students’ Alcohol and Drug Surveys 1996–2011.
  48. ACT Health Epidemiology Section 2014, Unpublished data from the ACT Secondary Students’ Alcohol and Drug Survey 2014; published data from the ACT Secondary Students’ Alcohol and Drug Surveys 1996–2011.
  49. ACT Health Epidemiology Section 2014, Unpublished data from the ACT Secondary Students’ Alcohol and Drug Survey 2014; published data from the ACT Secondary Students’ Alcohol and Drug Surveys 1996–2011.
  50. Richards K 2011, What makes juvenile offenders different from adult offenders? (Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology).
  51. Department of Disability, Housing and Community Services 2011, Discussion paper—towards a diversionary framework for the ACT, ACT Government, Canberra.
  52. ACT Health 2011, Health Status of Young People in the ACT, p.31 (ACT Health, Canberra).
  53. NHMRC 1999, Clinical Practice Guidelines: he Management of Cutaneous Melanoma, p.9 (NHMRC, Canberra).
  54. ACT Health 2011, Health Status of Young People in the ACT, p.31 (ACT Health, Canberra).
  55. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (adopted 10 December 1948), UNGA Res 217 A (III) (UDHR) Article 25.
  56. ABS 2012, Census of Population and Housing: Estimating Homelessness, 2011, accessed on 14.08.2015 via <www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/2049.0Main%20Features302011?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=2049.0&issue=2011&num=&view= External link >, and Youth Homelessness Matters Day, Snapshot of Youth Homelessness, accessed on 14.08.2015 via <www.youthhomelessnessmatters.net/snapshot-youth-homelessnessExternal link>.
  57. AIHW 2011, Headline Indicators for Children’s Health, Development and Wellbeing, p.90 (Canberra: AIHW).
  58. ACT Government, ACT Children and Young People’s Commitment 2015–2025, priority 1.
  59. ABS 2012, Census of Population and Housing: Estimating Homelessness, 2011, accessed on 14.08.2015 via <www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/2049.0Main%20Features302011?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=2049.0&issue=2011&num=&view= https://www.children.act.gov.au/__data/assets/image/0017/1080260/externallinkimage.gif >, and Youth Homelessness Matters Day, Snapshot of Youth Homelessness, accessed on 14.08.2015 via <www.youthhomelessnessmatters.net/snapshot-youth-homelessnessExternal link>.
  60. Household income has been adjusted to enable comparison between households with different size and composition (the number of adults and children under and over 15 years). Note also that households in the bottom three per cent are excluded as they are likely to have negative income or be experiencing a temporary income setback.
  61. Judith Yates and Vivienne Milligan 2007, Housing affordability: a 21st century problem, <www.ahuri.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0018/2178/AHURI_Final_Report_No105_Housing_affordability_a_21st_century_problem.pdfExternal link >, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute.
  62. Family violence is the preferred term for domestic violence as it encompasses the broad relationships defined by the term ‘relevant person’ (s.15 of the Domestic Violence and Protection Orders Act 2008 (ACT)), with the exception of direct references to legislation where the term ‘domestic violence’ is used AFP practical guide on family violence incidents (ACT Policing) available at <www.afp.gov.au/sites/default/files/PDF/IPS/AFP%20Practical%20Guide%20on%20family%20violence%20incidents%20ACT%20Policing.pdfExternal link >.
  63. ACT Policing 2013, Pocketbook guide for victims of crime, available at <www.police.act.gov.au/sites/default/files/PDF/Victims-of-crime-booklet-September-2013.pdfExternal link>.
  64. John W Fantuzzo and Wanda K Mohr 1999, ‘Prevalence and Effects of Child Exposure to Domestic Violence’ in The Future of Children (Winter 1999), Vol. 9, No. 3, p.23. Domestic Violence and Children.
  65. ABS 2013, Personal Safety, Australia, 2012, cat. no. 4906.0, Media release of 11.12.2013 at 11:30 (AEST) available at <www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/4906.0Media%20Release12012?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=4906.0&issue=2012&num=&view= External link >.
  66. Families ACT 2016, Domestic and Family Violence Research Briefing Paper, available at <http://static1.1.sqspcdn.com/static/f/1338726/26892576/1456961930790/Domestic+and+Family+Violence+Research+Briefing+Paper.pdf?token=NDxCLWe4OHCLdvG0c32ZNpFnjHw%3D External link >.
  67. Ibid and Sandra A Graham Bermann 2001, ‘The Impact of Woman Abuse on Children’s Social Development: Research and Theoretical Perspectives’ in Clare Dalton and Elizabeth M Schneider (eds.), Battered Women and the Law, p.257 (Foundation Press, New York).
  68. George Holden 2001, ‘Introduction: The Development of research into another consequence of family violence’ in Clare Dalton and Elizabeth M Schneider (eds.), Battered Women and the Law, p.250 (Foundation Press, New York) and Deborah Lockton and Richard Ward 1997, Domestic Violence, p.29 (Cavendish Publishing, London).
  69. UNICEF, Behind Closed Doors, op cit., p.7.
  70. ACT Government, ACT Children and Young People’s Commitment 2015–2025, priority 4.
  71. ABS 2015, Births, Australia, 2014, cat. no. 3301.0 (Canberra: ABS).
  72. AIHW 2009, A picture of Australia’s children 2009, cat. no. PHE 112 (Canberra: AIHW).
  73. AIHW 2009, A picture of Australia’s children 2009, cat. no. PHE 112 (Canberra: AIHW).
  74. Australian Productivity Commission 2011, Disability Care and Support: Productivity Commission Inquiry Report Overview and Recommendations, no. 54, p.12.
  75. ABS 2014, Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia: Summary of Findings, 2012, <www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/A813E50F4C45A338CA257C21000E4F36?opendocument>.
  76. Direct Care Australia 2012, What is an NDIS?, accessed on 10.08.2015 via <http://directcare.com.au/2012/06/what-is-an-ndis/>.
  77. Australian Government Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet 2012, ‘House of Representatives: National Disability Insurance Scheme Bill 2012, Second Reading Speech’, 29 November 2012 accessed on 10.08.2015 via <http://pmtranscripts.dpmc.gov.au/browse.php?did=18932>.
  78. ACT Government, ACT Children and Young People’s Commitment 2015–2025, priority 3.
  79. ABS 2014, Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia: Summary of Findings, 2012, <www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/A813E50F4C45A338CA257C21000E4F36?opendocument External link>.
  80. ACT Government Community Services Directorate, A Picture of ACT’s Children and Young People 2014, p.47.
  81. Centre for Community Child Health 2011, Policy brief no. 13, 2008: Literacy in Early Childhood, <www.rch.org.au/ccch/polivybriefs.cfm>, The Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne.
  82. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation) 2005, Ten Keys to the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, p.4.
  83. Moffit L and Volunteering Tasmania 2011, Engaging Young People in Volunteering: What works in Tasmania?, Volunteering Tasmania.

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